Communicable,Diseases,Due,Floo health Communicable Diseases Due to Floods
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Water Borne Diseases:Flood associates high risk of infection; however the risk will be low if there is a significant displacement of population. The major outbreak occurs due to contamination of drinking water facilities. The risk can be reduced if the disaster responsive forces are deployed effectively it can be predicted only through the direct contact with the polluted waters. The wound infections, conjunctivitis, ear, nose, throat infections and dermatitis occur due to contaminated water. The epidemic prone disease which can be transmitted through the contaminated water is leptospirosis.Vector Borne Diseases:Floods will indirectly increase the vector borne diseases expansion through many range of vector habitats. Standing water from rains, floods etc can act as breeding sites for mosquitoes. In turn they will affect the disaster affected population and increase the potential of infections such as dengue, malaria and west nile fever. If the flood waters recede they help in mosquito breeding. Malaria epidemic takes 6-8 eight days after the flood occurrence. This risk can also increase because of human negligence change in the human behavior and not taking precautionary measures towards malaria can affect in large sleeping outside after the flood, giving up the disease control activities and overcrowding may result affect greatly.Corpuses:HIV dead body can survive up to 6 days after the death. So if the death of a HIV infected person occurs in floods, it may result in corpuses. Tuberculosis corpuses can occur when the residual air in the lungs is exhaled through mouth and nose. Bloodborne viruses may occur due to contact with the non-intact contact with persons with blood or blood fluid when the blood is splashing. Gastrointestinal infections occur commonly because dead bodies release faeces. Transmission may occur through contact with the dead body, soiled clothes and contaminated clothes or equipment. Dead bodies contaminating the water may also result in gastrointestinal infections.Other Risks posed due to flooding:These include drowning and injuries or trauma. Tetanus can be massive if the tetanus injections are not given. Proper vaccination must be given immediately after floods especially to wounded persons, in order to prevent the tetanus.Next is hypothermia, which occurs particularly in children if they are exposed to flood waters for a longer period of time. There may be a risk of respiratory tract infections because of exposure to flood waters and rain, and loss of shelter.Power cuts which occur in large during floods may disturb water treatment process and water supply plants; increases risk of water borne diseases.Preventive Measures:Chlorination of water: Ensure continuous provision of safe drinking water will be the most important preventive measure need to be implemented after flooding, to reduce the risk of water-borne diseases.Vaccination against hepatitis A: Vaccination to high-risk groups, to persons involved in the drinking water management, waste water management or sewage water management can be considered.Malaria prevention: Use of insecticides can prevent mosquito breeding.Promoting good hygienic practice.Ensuring safe food preparation.Ensuring boiled or chlorinated water.Early diagnosis and treatment for malaria (within 24 hours of onset of fever).