Data,Recovery,for,NAND,and,NOR technology Data Recovery for NAND and NOR Flash Memory

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NAND or NOR FlashMemory: Flash memory is a non-volatile data storing memory waferthat involves electrically erasing and reprogramming technology. Beingnon-volatile these chips are capable of storing data even in the absence ofpower and are renowned for fast reading and better kinetic shock resisting qualities.NAND devices are accessed serially, using the same eight pins to transmitcontrol, addressing and data. NAND flash was introduced by Toshiba in 1989.Although NAND and NOR memory chips function differently theyare still widely being used in various electronic devices where data storing,erasing and reprogramming are essential. Both invented by DR. Fujio Masuoka inhis work place Toshiba, the main goal was set to outdate the old storagedevices that functions under magnetic energy like: hard disks and cassettetapes by reducing the cost per bit and increasing maximum chip capacity.Hence, NAND flash is widely used in MP3 players, USB drivesand digital cameras where higher storage capacity is crucial. But, some deviceslike pocket PC’s can be found using both types of flash memory at the same time.These PC’s typically use NAND for memory storage and NOR to boot the operatingsystem. Flawed Memory Drivesand Data Recovery:Data recovery is a highly specialized science which isequally valid for rescuing data from both NAND and NOR flash. Although, NOR israrely used and is quite expensive, NAND is preferred extensively for massstorage and a huge godsend for thin and smaller devices. The probability of data loss is elevated when bad memorystorage is used: unbranded USB drives, unbranded NAND wafer devices, etc. Theseunbranded memory devices & chips are often noticed in spontaneous rebootsleading to program failure. A malfunctioning RAM is often noticed to writecorrect data in an incorrect location of the drive which eventually creates adata malfunction and data loss. Furthermore, using flawed memory can also causedegradation of your hard drives logical capability and can finally destroy yourdevice, the most extreme: an unbootable system or device. Data recovery or NAND data recovery can minimize your lossand protect your machine from any incurable situation; we highly suggest avoidingthe purchase of unbranded USB drives, SD cards, USB sticks, CompactFlash cards,and any other no-name devices for storing your crucial data. NAND recovery ispossible but very complicated. First Aid Before Data Recovery:Data loss is a common problem thatwe often face due to virus attacks in our USB drives or when our computers getphysically or logically over used. To fix these data degradation problems datarecovery is only one solution that can rescue you and your data from thenightmare of any permanent loss. But, experts believe that data loss oftenbecomes a complicated task when a user ignores the safety measures that help toavoid further data losses. Thus, in case of data loss some safety measuresshould be applied. When data loss is acknowledged, further procedures to retain the data should not be made. This may lead to much more serious data loss. It’s better to contact experts for help and other remedy measures.  Using software like: scandisk should be completely avoided. Avoid no-name or unbranded devices. eBay sellers are not always honest eProvided ™ has learned many times where customers data is stored on fake NAND wafers, your purchase of a 16GB SD card may yield a soon to be damaged 1GB NAND wafer inside.Data Recovery for Hard Drives & NAND Storage:Data recovery processes embracevarious techniques with latest technologies. At first, experts determine thefault on the device and classify them into Tier 1 and Tier 2. If your device fallsinto Tier 1 this means your device is suffering from a logically damagedcomponent and data recovery costs are normally cheaper as compared to Tier 2.But, if your device has Tier 2 fault than your device is physically injured andmay have many internal damaged circuits which need circuit and recoveryexperts; the process will normally be more costly. After determining tier 1 or tier 2an image of device is saved and these images are relocated to a separate serverto avoid any accidental loss. Then the original copy of the image istransported to a lab where first degree data recovery is performed usingvarious utilities which may include repairing faults in the device, dumpingdirectly from NAND wafers, repairing circuits, crystals etc. Other variousattempts are also made which includes testing and recovering from the logicaldamage on the device. If the first degree recovery failsthen the task is considered to be severe and second degree recovery ispracticed which includes high level techniques and experts with professionalknowledge over critical uses of software and hexadecimal formulas. Thesesoftware utilities are used to re-build the drive and manipulate other driveerrors. In case of physical faults like:motor replacements, repairing heads or cleaning scratches different cleaningliquids and other spare parts are available according to the size and code. Afterevery physical and logical recovery attempt the rescued data is copied to anadditional storage device like: CD/DVD’s, flash drives, and hard drives.



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